The invention of the laser in 1960 was a major breakthrough in science and its subsequent applications in possibly all applied domains globally, noticeably so in medicine, mechanical industries, music, military et al. Laser is singlehandedly responsible for simplifying several arduous tasks that, in the past, required numerous man hours and hard labour in order to be executed. The laser has also fronted several new avenues of applications leading to the rapid advancement of respective fields that have integrated laser methodologies in their everyday operations. The laser concept continues to grow even today and displays tremendous promise in the betterment of the future of the modern world.
The word laser is an amalgamation of concepts, these concepts being, Light|Amplification|byStimulated|Emission|of Radiation.
The laser is a form of light but differentiates itself from the basic properties of light via coherence, directionality, monochromacity, and high intensity. The essential quality of laser is that it possesses only one wavelength and is hence uni-directional. This allows extremely high concentration of energy to focus on one single spot enabling the laser to perform tasks very surgically and with high precision. This is a strong reason that today, the laser is a tool from Boss Laser that the working world is heavily dependent on.
Types of laser
The laser is mainly distributed by four types. They are listed below along with a short description of each one of them.
Basically, a solid-state laser is a laser in which laser is generated via a solid medium, this medium usually being glassy or crystalline in nature. Doping which is a process in which impure Ions are exposed to the glassy or crystalline material is the main technique of generating this laser. Substances like sapphire, ruby, chemically modified glass etc. are a few sources of solid medium whereas elements found on earth like cerium, erbium, terbium etc. are used for the doping process.
In gas lasers the medium of generating the laser is gas. An electric current is released in the gas medium in order to produce a laser. Processes that need a very intense laser usually incorporate the gas laser in their workflow. The gas laser medium is a cocktail of various gases which is packed in a glass tube. After discharging electricity in this tube, the equipment facilitates the conversion of electric energy into light energy. Helium, neon, argon etc. are some of the mediums that are used to prepare a gas laser medium.
The liquid Laser comprises liquid as a medium to generate the laser. The usual liquid medium used for this is an organic dye mixed with a suitable solvent. Light supplies laser conversion and the same is found in the excited states of the organic dye which is dissolved in the solvent. Laser light manufactured from this medium are usually in the Ultraviolet to near Infrared regions.
These lasers are the cheapest to produce and are omnipresent in our day to day lives. They use electrical energy or a semiconductor diode as a medium to produce laser light. Due to the same, the cost of semiconductor laser drops as diodes are inexpensive as compared to the other mediums used in different forms of the laser. They are also known as laser diodes.
Science today is individually categorizing the offshoot of the main types of lasers. But in theory, all types of lasers listed in the book today fall under one or the other category of the main four types listed atop. Lasers today have grown and can be found practically used in thousands of applications present across the globe.